Andrea Cioli was born in Cortona in 1573 and obtained Florentine citizenship in 1611. He entered the service of Ferdinando I (1549-1609) as aide to Belisario Vinta (1542-1613), and at the Grand Duke's death became Secretary of State to Cristina di Lorena (1565-1636), who always held him in high esteem. By Cosimo II's (1590-1621) last will and testament he was elected to the Council of the Regency during Ferdinando II's (1610-1670) childhood. He arranged Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere, gaining for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany rights over the Duchy of Urbino. In 1626 he became a senator and up to his death in 1641 was Secretary to Grand Duke Ferdinando II. From this vantage point Andrea Cioli watched over all the stages of Galileo's trial, acting as spokesman for the Grand Duke, who, though duty-bound to accept the dictates of the Holy Office, did all he could to help his mathematician.